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The Recitation of these Surahs in the Optional Prayers

It has been confirmed in Sahih Muslim from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah recited this Surah (Al-Kafirun) and

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah One.'') (112:1) in the two Rak`ahs of Tawaf. It is also recorded in Sahih Muslim in a Hadith of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah recited these two Surahs in the two Rak`ahs (optional prayer) of the Morning prayer. Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah recited in the two Rak`ahs before the Morning prayer and the two Rak`ahs after the Sunset prayer on approximately ten or twenty different occasions,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرُونَ

(Say: "O Al-Kafirun!'') and

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah One.'') (112:1) Ahmad also recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "I watched the Prophet twenty-four or twenty-five times reciting in the two Rak`ahs before the Morning prayer and the two Rak`ahs after the Sunset prayer,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرُونَ

(Say: "O Al-Kafirun!'') and

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah One.'') (112:1)'' Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "I watched the Prophet for a month and he would recite in the two Rak`ahs before the Morning prayer,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرُونَ

(Say: "O Al-Kafirun.'') and

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah One.'') (112:1)'' This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan.'' It has already been mentioned previously in a Hadith that it (Surat Al-Kafirun) is equivalent to a fourth of the Qur'an and Az-Zalzalah is equivalent to a fourth of the Qur'an.

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرُونَ لَآ أَعۡبُدُ مَا تَعۡبُدُونَ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ عَـٰبِدُونَ مَآ أَعۡبُدُ وَلَآ أَنَا۟ عَابِدٌ۬ مَّا عَبَدتُّمۡ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ عَـٰبِدُونَ مَآ أَعۡبُدُ لَكُمۡ دِينُكُمۡ وَلِىَ دِينِ

(1. Say: "O disbelievers!'') (2. "I worship not that which you worship.'') (3. "Nor will you worship whom I worship.'') (4. "And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping.'') (5. "Nor will you worship that which I worship.'') (6. "To you be your religion, and to me my religion.'')

The Declaration of Innocence from Shirk

This Surah is the Surah of disavowal from the deeds of the idolaters. It commands a complete disavowal of that. Allah's statement,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلۡڪَـٰفِرُونَ

(Say: "O disbelievers!'') includes every disbeliever on the face of the earth, however, this statement is particularly directed towards the disbelievers of the Quraysh. It has been said that in their ignorance they invited the Messenger of Allah to worship their idols for a year and they would (in turn) worship his God for a year. Therefore, Allah revealed this Surah and in it

He commanded His Messenger to disavow himself from their religion completely

Allah said,

﴿ لَآ أَعۡبُدُ مَا تَعۡبُدُونَ

(I worship not that which you worship.) meaning, statues and rival gods.

﴿ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ عَـٰبِدُونَ مَآ أَعۡبُدُ

(Nor will you worship whom I worship.) and He is Allah Alone, Who has no partner. So the word Ma (what) here means Man (who). Then Allah says,

﴿ وَلَآ أَنَا۟ عَابِدٌ۬ مَّا عَبَدتُّمۡ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ عَـٰبِدُونَ مَآ أَعۡبُدُ

(And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. Nor will you worship whom I worship.) meaning, `I do not worship according to your worship, which means that I do not go along with it or follow it. I only worship Allah in the manner in which He loves and is pleased with.' Thus, Allah says,

﴿ وَلَآ أَنتُمۡ عَـٰبِدُونَ مَآ أَعۡبُدُ

(Nor will you worship whom I worship.) meaning, `you do not follow the commands of Allah and His Legislation in His worship. Rather, you have invented something out of the promptings of your own souls.' This is as Allah says,

﴿ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهۡوَى ٱلۡأَنفُسُ‌ۖ وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّہِمُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰٓ

(They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!) (53:23) Therefore, the disavowal is from all of what they are involved. For certainly the worshipper must have a god whom he worships and set acts of worship that he follows to get to him. So the Messenger and his followers worship Allah according to what He has legislated. This is why the statement of Islam is "There is no God worthy of being worshipped except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.'' This means that there is no (true) object of worship except Allah and there is no path to Him (i.e., way of worshipping Him) other than that which the Messenger came with. The idolaters worship other than Allah, with acts of worship that Allah has not allowed. This is why the Messenger said to them,

﴿ لَكُمۡ دِينُكُمۡ وَلِىَ دِينِ

(To you be your religion, and to me my religion.) This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل لِّى عَمَلِى وَلَكُمۡ عَمَلُكُمۡ‌ۖ أَنتُم بَرِيٓـُٔونَ مِمَّآ أَعۡمَلُ وَأَنَا۟ بَرِىٓءٌ۬ مِّمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ

(And if they belie you, say: "For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!'') (10:41) and He said,

﴿ لَنَآ أَعۡمَـٰلُنَا وَلَكُمۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُكُمۡ

(To us our deeds, and to you your deeds.) (28:55) Al-Bukhari said, "It has been said,

﴿ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ

(To you be your religion.) means disbelief.

﴿ وَلِىَ دِينِ

(and to me my religion.) means Islam. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Qul ya Ayyuhal-Kafirun.

The Virtues of Surat An-Nasr

It has been mentioned previously that it (Surat An-Nasr) is equivalent to one-fourth of the Qur'an and that Surat Az-Zalzalah is equivalent to one-fourth of the Qur'an. An-Nasa'i recorded from `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Utbah that Ibn `Abbas said to him, "O Ibn `Utbah! Do you know the last Surah of the Qur'an that was revealed?'' He answered, "Yes, it was

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) (110:1)'' He (Ibn `Abbas) said, "You have spoken truthfully.''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ وَرَأَيۡتَ ٱلنَّاسَ يَدۡخُلُونَ فِى دِينِ ٱللَّهِ أَفۡوَاجً۬ا فَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّكَ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡهُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ تَوَّابَۢا

(1. When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) (2. And you see that the people enter Allah's religion in crowds.) (3. So, glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.)

This Surah informs of the Completion of the Life of Allah's Messenger

Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Umar used to bring me into the gatherings with the old men of (the battle of) Badr. However, it was as if one of them felt something in himself (against my attending). So he said, `Why do you (`Umar) bring this (youth) to sit with us when we have children like him (i.e., his age)' So `Umar replied, `Verily, he is among those whom you know. Then one day he called them and invited me to sit with them, and I do not think that he invited me to be among them that day except to show them. So he said, `What do you say about Allah's statement,

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.)' Some of them said, `We were commanded to praise Allah and seek His forgiveness when He helps us and gives us victory.' Some of them remained silent and did not say anything. Then he (`Umar) said to me, `Is this what you say, O Ibn `Abbas' I said, `No.' He then said, `What do you say' I said, `It was the end of the life of Allah's Messenger that Allah was informing him of. Allah said,

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) which means, that is a sign of the end of your life.

﴿ فَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّكَ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡهُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ تَوَّابَۢا

(So, glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.)' So, `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I do not know anything about it other than what you have said.''' Al-Bukhari was alone in recording this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "When

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest.) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah said,

« نُعِيَتْ إِلَيَّ نَفْسِي »

(My death has been announced to me.) And indeed he died during that year.'' Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah used to say often in his bowing and prostrating,

« سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا وَبِحَمْدِكَ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي »

(Glory to You, O Allah, our Lord, and praise be to You. O Allah, forgive me.) He did this as his interpretation of the Qur'an (i.e., showing its implementation).'' The rest of the group has also recorded this Hadith except for At-Tirmidhi. Imam Ahmad recorded from Masruq that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah used to often say towards the end of his life,

« سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ، أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْه »

(Glory to Allah, and praise be unto Him. I seek Allah's forgiveness and I repent to Him.) And he said,

« إِنَّ رَبِّي كَانَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَنِّي سَأَرَى عَلَامَةً فِي أُمَّتِي، وَأَمَرَنِي إِذَا رَأَيْتُهَا أَنْ أُسَبِّحَ بِحَمْدِهِ وَأَسْتَغْفِرَهُ، إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا، فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُهَا:
﴿ إِذَا جَآءَ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡفَتۡحُ وَرَأَيۡتَ ٱلنَّاسَ يَدۡخُلُونَ فِى دِينِ ٱللَّهِ أَفۡوَاجً۬ا فَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّكَ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡهُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ تَوَّابَۢا

(Verily, my Lord has informed me that I will see a sign in my Ummah and He has commanded me that when I see it, I should glorify His praises and seek His forgiveness, for He is the One Who accepts repentance. And indeed I have seen it (i.e., the sign). (When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest (Al-Fath). And you see that the people enter Allah's religion in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.))'' Muslim also recorded this Hadith. The meaning of Al-Fath here is the conquest of Makkah, and there is only one view concerning it. For indeed the different areas of the Arabs were waiting for the conquest of Makkah before they would accept Islam. They said, "If he (Muhammad is victorious over his people, then he is a (true) Prophet.'' So when Allah gave him victory over Makkah, they entered into the religion of Allah (Islam) in crowds. Thus, two years did not pass (after the conquest of Makkah) before the peninsula of the Arabs was laden with faith. And there did not remain any of the tribes of the Arabs except that they professed (their acceptance) of Islam. And all praise and blessings are due to Allah. Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that `Amr bin Salamah said, "When Makkah was conquered, all of the people rushed to the Messenger of Allah to profess their Islam. The various regions were delaying their acceptance of Islam until Makkah was conquered. The people used to say, `Leave him and his people alone. If he is victorious over them he is a (true) Prophet.''' We have researched the war expedition for conquest of Makkah in our book As-Surah. Therefore, whoever wishes he may review it there. And all praise and blessings are due to Allah. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu `Ammar that a neighbor of Jabir bin `Abdullah told him, "I returned from a journey and Jabir bin `Abdullah came and greeted me. So I began to talk with him about the divisions among the people and what they had started doing. Thus, Jabir began to cry and he said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا »

(Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds.)'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nasr, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

The Tafsir of Surah Tabbat (Chapter - 111) Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬ وَتَبَّ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥ وَمَا ڪَسَبَ سَيَصۡلَىٰ نَارً۬ا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ۬ وَٱمۡرَأَتُهُ ۥ حَمَّالَةَ ٱلۡحَطَبِ فِى جِيدِهَا حَبۡلٌ۬ مِّن مَّسَدِۭ

(1. Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) (2. His wealth and his children will not benefit him!) (3. He will enter a Fire full of flames!) (4. And his wife too, who carries wood.) (5. In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.

The Reason for the Revelation of this Surah and the Arrogance of Abu Lahab toward the Messenger of Allah

Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet went out to the valley of Al-Batha and he ascended the mountain. Then he cried out,

« يَا صَبَاحَاه »

(O people, come at once!) So the Quraysh gathered around him. Then he said,

« أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ حَدَّثْتُكُمْ أَنَّ الْعَدُوَّ مُصَبِّحُكُمْ، أَوْ مُمَسِّيكُمْ أَكُنْتُمْ تُصَدِّقُونِّي »

(If I told you all that the enemy was going to attack you in the morning, or in the evening, would you all believe me) They replied, "Yes.'' Then he said,

« فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيد »

(Verily, I am a warner (sent) to you all before the coming of a severe torment.) Then Abu Lahab said, "Have you gathered us for this May you perish!'' Thus, Allah revealed,

﴿ تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬ وَتَبَّ

(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!), to the end of the Surah. In another narration it states that he stood up dusting of his hands and said, "Perish you for the rest of this day! Have you gathered us for this'' Then Allah revealed,

﴿ تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬ وَتَبَّ

(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) The first part is a supplication against him and the second is information about him. This man Abu Lahab was one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah. His name was `Abdul-`Uzza bin Abdul-Muttalib. His surname was Abu `Utaybah and he was only called Abu Lahab because of the brightness of his face. He used to often cause harm to the Messenger of Allah. He hated and scorned him and his religion. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Az-Zinad that a man called Rabi`ah bin `Abbad from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dil, who was a man of pre-Islamic ignorance who accepted Islam, said to him, "I saw the Prophet in the time of pre-Islamic ignorance in the market of Dhul-Majaz and he was saying,

« يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، قُولُوا: لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ تُفْلِحُوا »

(O people! Say there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and you will be successful.) The people were gathered around him and behind him there was a man with a bright face, squint (or cross) eyes and two braids in his hair. He was saying, "Verily, he is an apostate (from our religion) and a liar!'' This man was following him (the Prophet) around wherever he went. So, I asked who was he and they (the people) said, "This is his uncle, Abu Lahab.'' Ahmad also recorded this narration from Surayj, who reported it from Ibn Abu Az-Zinad, who reported it from his father (Abu Zinad) who mentioned this same narration. However in this report, Abu Zinad said, "I said to Rabi`ah, `Were you a child at that time' He replied, `No. By Allah, that day I was most intelligent, and I was the strongest blower of the flute (for music).''' Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥ وَمَا ڪَسَبَ

(His wealth and his children (Kasab) will not benefit him!) Ibn `Abbas and others have said,

﴿ وَمَا ڪَسَبَ

(and his children (Kasab) will not benefit him!) "Kasab means his children.'' A similar statement has been reported from `A'ishah, Mujahid, `Ata', Al-Hasan and Ibn Sirin. It has been mentioned from Ibn Mas`ud that when the Messenger of Allah called his people to faith, Abu Lahab said, "Even if what my nephew says is true, I will ransom myself (i.e., save myself) from the painful torment on the Day of Judgment with my wealth and my children.'' Thus, Allah revealed,

﴿ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥ وَمَا ڪَسَبَ

(His wealth and his children will not benefit him!) Then Allah says,

﴿ سَيَصۡلَىٰ نَارً۬ا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ۬

(He will enter a Fire full of flames!) meaning, it has flames, evil and severe burning.

The Destiny of Umm Jamil, the Wife of Abu Lahab
﴿ وَٱمۡرَأَتُهُ ۥ حَمَّالَةَ ٱلۡحَطَبِ

(And his wife too, who carries wood.) His wife was among the leading women of the Quraysh and she was known as Umm Jamil. Her name was `Arwah bint Harb bin Umayyah and she was the sister of Abu Sufyan. She was supportive of her husband in his disbelief, rejection and obstinacy. Therefore, she will be helping to administer his punishment in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgment. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ وَٱمۡرَأَتُهُ ۥ حَمَّالَةَ ٱلۡحَطَبِ فِى جِيدِهَا حَبۡلٌ۬ مِّن مَّسَدِۭ

(Who carries wood. In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.), meaning, she will carry the firewood and throw it upon her husband to increase that which he is in (of torment), and she will be ready and prepared to do so.

﴿ فِى جِيدِهَا حَبۡلٌ۬ مِّن مَّسَدِۭ

(In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.) Mujahid and `Urwah both said, "From the palm fiber of the Fire.'' Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas, `Atiyah Al-Jadali, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd that she used to place thorns in the path of the Messenger of Allah . Al-Jawhari said, "Al-Masad refers to fibers, it is also a rope made from fibers or palm leaves. It is also made from the skins of camels or their furs. It is said (in Arabic) Masadtul-Habla and Amsaduhu Masadan, when you tightly fasten its twine.'' Mujahid said,

﴿ فِى جِيدِهَا حَبۡلٌ۬ مِّن مَّسَدِۭ

(In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad.) "This means a collar of iron.'' Don't you see that the Arabs call a pulley cable a Masad

A Story of Abu Lahab's Wife harming the Messenger of Allah

Ibn Abi Hatim said that his father and Abu Zur`ah both said that `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr Al-Humaydi told them that Sufyan informed them that Al-Walid bin Kathir related from Ibn Tadrus who reported that Asma' bint Abi Bakr said, "When

﴿ تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬

(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he)!), was revealed, the one-eyed Umm Jamil bint Harb came out wailing, and she had a stone in her hand. She was saying, `He criticizes our father, and his religion is our scorn, and his command is to disobey us.' The Messenger of Allah was sitting in the Masjid (of the Ka`bah) and Abu Bakr was with him. When Abu Bakr saw her he said, `O Messenger of Allah! She is coming and I fear that she will see you.' The Messenger of Allah replied,

« إِنَّهَا لَنْ تَرَانِي »

(Verily, she will not see me.) Then he recited some of the Qur'an as a protection for himself. This is as Allah says,

﴿ وَإِذَا قَرَأۡتَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ جَعَلۡنَا بَيۡنَكَ وَبَيۡنَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأَخِرَةِ حِجَابً۬ا مَّسۡتُورً۬ا

(And when you recite the Qur'an, We put between you and those who believe not in the Hereafter, an invisible veil.) (17:45) So she advanced until she was standing in front of Abu Bakr and she did not see the Messenger of Allah. She then said, `O Abu Bakr! Verily, I have been informed that your friend is making defamatory poetry about me.' Abu Bakr replied, `Nay! By the Lord of this House (the Ka`bah) he is not defaming you.' So she turned away saying, `Indeed the Quraysh know that I am the daughter of their leader.''' Al-Walid or another person said in a different version of this Hadith, "So Umm Jamil stumbled over her waist gown while she was making circuits (Tawaf) around the House (the Ka`bah) and she said, `Cursed be the reviler.' Then Umm Hakim bint `Abdul-Muttalib said, `I am a chaste woman so I will not speak abusively and I am refined so I do not know. Both of us are children of the same uncle. And after all the Quraysh know best.'' This is the end of the Tafsir of this Surah, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.