;
The Reason for the Revelation of this Surah and its Virtues

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ubayy bin Ka`b that the idolaters said to the Prophet, "O Muhammad! Tell us the lineage of your Lord.'' So Allah revealed

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ
﴿ لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدُۢ

(1. Say: "He is Allah") (2. "One".) (3. "He begets not, nor was He begotten".) (4. "And there is non comparable to Him.'') Similar was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir and they added in their narration that he said,

﴿ ٱلصَّمَدُ

(As-Samad) is One Who does not give birth, nor was He born, because there is nothing that is born except that it will die, and there is nothing that dies except that it leaves behind inheritance, and indeed Allah does not die and He does not leave behind any inheritance.

﴿ وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدُۢ

(And there is none comparable to Him.) This means that there is none similar to Him, none equal to Him and there is nothing at all like Him.'' Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded it and At-Tirmidhi mentioned it as a Mursal narration. Then At-Tirmidhi said, "And this is the most correct.''

A Hadith on its Virtues

Al-Bukhari reported from `Amrah bint `Abdur-Rahman, who used to stay in the apartment of `A'ishah, the wife of the Prophet, that `A'ishah said, "The Prophet sent a man as the commander of a war expedition and he used to lead his companions in prayer with recitation (of the Qur'an). And he would complete his recitation with the recitation of `Say: He is Allah, One.' So when they returned they mentioned that to the Prophet and he said,

« سَلُوهُ لِأَيِّ شَيْءٍ يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ؟ »

(Ask him why does he do that.) So they asked him and he said, `Because it is the description of Ar-Rahman and I love to recite it. So the Prophet said,

« أَخْبِرُوهُ أَنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يُحِبُّه »

(Inform him that Allah the Most High loves him.)'' This is how Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in his Book of Tawhid. Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded it. In his Book of Salah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, "A man from the Ansar used to lead the people in prayer in the Masjid of Quba'. Whenever he began a Surah in the recitation of the prayer that he was leading them, he would start by reciting `Say: He is Allah, One' until he completed the entire Surah. Then he would recite another Surah along with it (after it). And used to do this in every Rak`ah. So his companions spoke to him about this saying; `Verily, you begin the prayer with this Surah. Then you think that it is not sufficient for you unless you recite another Surah as well. So you should either recite it or leave it and recite another Surah instead.' The man replied, `I will not leave it off. If you want me to continue leading you (in prayer), I will do this; and if you all do not like it, I will leave you (i.e., I will stop leading you).' They used to consider him to be of the best of them to lead them in prayer and they did not want anyone else to lead them other than him. So, when the Prophet came they informed him of this information and he said,

« يَا فُلَانُ، مَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ مَا يَأْمُرُكَ بِهِ أَصْحَابُكَ، وَمَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى لُزُوم هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ فِي كُلِّ رَكْعَةٍ؟ »

(O so-and-so! What prevents you from doing what your companions are commanding you to do, and what makes you adhere to the recitation of this Surah in every Rak`ah) The man said, `Verily, I love it.' The Prophet replied,

« حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا أَدْخَلَكَ الْجَنَّة »

(Your love of it will cause you to enter Paradise.) This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, with a disconnected chain, but in a manner indicating his approval.

A Hadith that mentions this Surah is equivalent to a Third of the Qur'an

Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id that a man heard another man reciting

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah, One.'') and he was repeating over and over. So when morning came, the man went to the Prophet and mentioned that to him, and it was as though he was belittling it. The Prophet said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ إِنَّهَا لَتَعْدِلُ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآن »

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul, verily it is equivalent to a third of the Qur'an.) Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded it. Another Hadith Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said to his Companions,

« أَيَعْجِزُ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَقْرَأَ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ فِي لَيْلَةٍ »

(Is one of you not able to recite a third of the Qur'an in a single night) This was something that was difficult for them and they said, "Which of us is able to do that, O Messenger of Allah '' So he replied,

« اللهُ الْوَاحِدُ الصَّمَدُ ثُلُثُ الْقُرْآن »

("Allah is the One, As-Samad'' is a third of the Qur'an.) Al-Bukhari was alone in recording this Hadith.

Another Hadith that its Recitation necessitates Admission into Paradise

Imam Malik bin Anas recorded from `Ubayd bin Hunayn that he heard Abu Hurayrah saying, "I went out with the Prophet and he heard a man reciting `Say: He is Allah, the One.' So the Messenger of Allah said,

« وَجَبَت »

(It is obligatory.) I asked, `What is obligatory' He replied,

« الْجَنَّة »

(Paradise.)'' At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also recorded it by way of Malik, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib. We do not know of it except as a narration of Malik.'' The Hadith in which the Prophet said,

« حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا أَدْخَلَكَ الْجَنَّة »

(Your love of it will cause you to enter Paradise.) has already been mentioned.

A Hadith about repeating this Surah

`Abdullah bin Imam Ahmad recorded from Mu`adh bin `Abdullah bin Khubayb, who reported that his father said, "We became thirsty and it had become dark while we were waiting for the Messenger of Allah to lead us in prayer. Then, when he came out he took me by my hand and said,

« قُل »

(Say.) Then he was silent. Then he said again,

« قُل »

(Say.) So I said, `What should I say' He said,

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
وَالْمُعَوِّذَتَيْنِ حِينَ تُمْسِي وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُ ثَلَاثًا، تَكْفِكَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مَرَّتَيْن »

(Say: "He is Allah, One,'' and the two Surahs of Refuge (Al-Falaq and An-Nas) when you enter upon the evening and the morning three times (each). They will be sufficient for you two times every day.)'' This Hadith was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib.'' An-Nasa'i also recorded through another chain of narrators with the wording,

« يَكْفِكَ كُلَّ شَيْء »

(They will suffice you against everything.)

Another Hadith about supplicating with it by Allah's Names

In his Book of Tafsir, An-Nasa'i recorded from `Abdullah bin Buraydah, who reported from his father that he entered the Masjid with the Messenger of Allah , and there was a man praying and supplicating saying, "O Allah! Verily, I ask you by my testifying that there is no God worthy of worship except You. You are the One, the Self-Sufficient Sustainer of all, Who does not give birth, nor were You born, and there is none comparable to Him.'' The Prophet said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَقَدْ سَأَلَهُ بِاسْمِهِ الْأَعْظَم، الَّذِي إِذَ
A Hadith about seeking a Cure by these Surahs

Al-Bukhari recorded from `A'ishah that whenever the Prophet would go to bed every night, he would put his palms together and blow into them. Then he would recite into them (his palms), `Say: He is Allah, One', `Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq', and `Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.' Then he would wipe whatever he was able to of his body with them (his palms). He would begin wiping his head and face with them and the front part of his body. He would do this (wiping his body) three times. The Sunan compilers also recorded this same Hadith.

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدُۢ

(1. Say: "He is Allah, One.'') (2. "Allah As-Samad.'') (3. "He begets not, nor was He begotten.'') (4. "And there is none comparable to Him.'') The reason for the revelation of this Surah has already been mentioned. `Ikrimah said, "When the Jews said, `We worship `Uzayr, the son of Allah,' and the Christians said, `We worship the Messiah (`Isa), the son of Allah,' and the Zoroastrians said, `We worship the sun and the moon,' and the idolaters said, `We worship idols,' Allah revealed to His Messenger,

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ

(Say: "He is Allah, One.'') meaning, He is the One, the Singular, Who has no peer, no assistant, no rival, no equal and none comparable to Him. This word (Al-Ahad) cannot be used for anyone in affirmation except Allah the Mighty and Majestic, because He is perfect in all of His attributes and actions. Concerning His saying,

﴿ ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ

(Allah As-Samad.) `Ikrimah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means the One Who all of the creation depends upon for their needs and their requests.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, "He is the Master Who is perfect in His sovereignty, the Most Noble Who is perfect in His nobility, the Most Magnificent Who is perfect in His magnificence, the Most Forbearing Who is perfect in His forbearance, the All-Knowing Who is perfect in His knowledge, and the Most Wise Who is perfect in His wisdom. He is the One Who is perfect in all aspects of nobility and authority. He is Allah, glory be unto Him. These attributes are not befitting anyone other than Him. He has no coequal and nothing is like Him. Glory be to Allah, the One, the Irresistible.'' Al-A`mash reported from Shaqiq, who said that Abu Wa'il said,

﴿ ٱلصَّمَدُ

(As-Samad.) is the Master Whose control is complete.''

Allah is Above having Children and procreating

Then Allah says,

﴿ لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدُۢ

(He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none comparable to Him.), meaning, He does not have any child, parent or spouse. Mujahid said,

﴿ وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ ڪُفُوًا أَحَدُۢ

(And there is none comparable to Him.) "This means He does not have a spouse.'' This is as Allah says,

﴿ بَدِيعُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ وَلَمۡ تَكُن لَّهُ ۥ صَـٰحِبَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ

(He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things.) (6:101) meaning, He owns everything and He created everything. So how can He have a peer among His creatures who can be equal to Him, or a relative who can resemble Him Glorified, Exalted and far removed is Allah from such a thing. Allah says,

﴿ وَقَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَلَدً۬ا لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتُمۡ شَيۡـًٔا إِدًّ۬ا تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوۡاْ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ وَلَدً۬ا وَمَا يَنۢبَغِى لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا إِن ڪُلُّ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّآ ءَاتِى ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ عَبۡدً۬ا لَّقَدۡ أَحۡصَٮٰهُمۡ وَعَدَّهُمۡ عَدًّ۬ا وَكُلُّهُمۡ ءَاتِيهِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فَرۡدًا

(And they say: Ar-Rahman has begotten a son. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, that they ascribe a son to Ar-Rahman. But it is not suitable for Ar-Rahman that He should beget a son. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto Ar-Rahman as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And all of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.) (19:88-95) And Allah says,

﴿ وَقَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَلَدً۬ا‌ۗ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ‌ۚ بَلۡ عِبَادٌ۬ مُّكۡرَمُونَ لَا يَسۡبِقُونَهُ ۥ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ وَهُم بِأَمۡرِهِۦ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(And they say: "Ar-Rahman has begotten a son. Glory to Him! They are but honored servants. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command.) (21:26-27) Allah also says,

﴿ وَجَعَلُواْ بَيۡنَهُ ۥ وَبَيۡنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ نَسَبً۬ا‌ۚ وَلَقَدۡ عَلِمَتِ ٱلۡجِنَّةُ إِنَّہُمۡ لَمُحۡضَرُونَ
﴿ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

(And they have invented a kinship between Him and the Jinn, but the Jinn know well that they have indeed to appear before Him. Glorified is Allah! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him!) (37:158-159) In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is recorded (that that the Prophet said),

« لَا أَحَدَ أَصْبَرُ عَلَى أَذًى سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ، يَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا، وَهُوَ يَرْزُقُهُمْ وَيُعَافِيهِم »

(There is no one more patient with something harmful that he hears than Allah. They attribute a son to Him, while it is He Who gives them sustenance and cures them.) Al-Bukhari also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

« قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: كَذَّبَنِي ابْنُ آدَمَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، فَأَمَّا تَكْذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: لَنْ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي، وَلَيْسَ أَوَّلُ الْخَلْقِ بِأَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ إِعَادَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا شَتْمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: اتَّخَذَ اللهُ وَلَدًا، وَأَنَا الْأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ، لَمْ أَلِدْ وَلَمْ أُولَدْ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِي كُفُوًا أَحَد »

(Allah the Mighty and Majestic says, "The Son of Adam denies Me and he has no right to do so, and he abuses Me and he has no right to do so. In reference to his denial of Me, it is his saying: `He (Allah) will never re-create me like He created me before.' But the re-creation of him is easier than his original creation. As for his cursing Me, it is his saying: `Allah has taken a son.' But I am the One, the Self-Sufficient Master. I do not give birth, nor was I born, and there is none comparable to Me.'') This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ikhlas, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

The Position of Ibn Mas`ud concerning Al-Mu`awwidhatayn

Imam Ahmad recorded from Zirr bin Hubaysh that Ubayy bin Ka`b told him that Ibn Mas`ud did not record the Mu`awwidhatayn in his Mushaf (copy of the Qur'an). So Ubayy said, "I testify that the Messenger of Allah informed me that Jibril said to him,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) So he said it. And Jibril said to him,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1) So he said it. Therefore, we say what the Prophet said.''

The Virtues of Surahs Al-Falaq and An-Nas

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded on the authority of `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَلَمْ تَرَ آيَاتٍ أُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ لَمْ يُرَ مِثْلُهُنَّ قَطُّ:

(Do you not see that there have been Ayat revealed to me tonight the like of which has not been seen before). They are

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with, the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and;

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1)) This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

Another Narration

Imam Ahmad recorded from `Uqbah bin `Amir that he said, "While I was leading the Messenger of Allah along one of these paths he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ أَلَا تَرْكَبُ؟ »

(O `Uqbah! Will you not ride) I was afraid that this might be considered an act of disobedience. So the Messenger of Allah got down and I rode for a while. Then he rode. Then he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ، أَلَا أُعَلِّمُكَ سُورَتَيْنِ مِنْ خَيْرِ سُورَتَيْنِ قَرَأَ بِهِمَا النَّاسُ؟ »

(O `Uqbah! Should I not teach you two Surahs that are of the best two Surahs that the people recite) I said, `Of course, O Messenger of Allah.' So he taught me to recite

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1) Then the call was given to begin the prayer and the Messenger of Allah went forward (to lead the people), and he recited them in the prayer. Afterwards he passed by me and said,

« كَيْفَ رَأَيْتَ يَا عُقَيْبُ، اقْرَأْ بِهِمَا كُلَّمَا نِمْتَ وَكُلَّمَا قُمْتَ »

(What do you think, O `Uqayb Recite these two Surahs whenever you go to sleep and whenever you get up.)''

An-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud both recorded this Hadith.

Another Narration
« إِنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَتَعَوَّذُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَيْنِ:

(Verily, the people do not seek protection with anything like these two:

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and;

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind.'')) (114:1)

Another Narration

An-Nasa'i recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir said, "I was walking with the Messenger of Allah when he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ قُلْ »

(O `Uqbah! Say!) I replied, `What should I say', so he was silent and did not respond to me. Then he said,

« قُلْ »

(Say!) I replied, `What should I say, O Messenger of Allah' He said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') So, I recited it until I reached its end. Then he said,

« قُلْ »

(Say!) I replied, `What should I say O Messenger of Allah' He said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') So, I recited it until I reached its end. Then the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَا سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِمِثْلِهَا، وَلَا اسْتَعَاذَ مُسْتَعِيذٌ بِمِثْلِهَا »

(No person beseeches with anything like these, and no person seeks refuge with anything like these.)''

Another Hadith

An-Nasa'i recorded that Ibn `Abis Al-Juhani said that the Prophet said to him,

« يَا ابْنَ عَابِسٍ أَلَا أَدُلُّكَ أَوْ أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ بِأَفْضَلِ مَا يَتَعَوَّذُ بِهِ الْمُتَعَوِّذُونَ؟ »

(O Ibn `Abis! Shall I guide you to -- or inform you -- of the best thing that those who seek protection use for protection) He replied, "Of course, O Messenger of Allah!'' The Prophet said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ
﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ
هَاتَانِ السُّورَتَانِ »

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (and (Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') ( These two Surahs (are the best protection).) Imam Malik recorded from `A'ishah that whenever the Messenger of Allah was suffering from an ailment, he would recite the Mu`awwidhatayn over himself and blow (over himself). Then if his pain became severe, `A'ishah said that she would recite the Mu`awwidhatayn over him and take his hand and wipe it over himself seeking the blessing of those Surahs. Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah all recorded this Hadith.

It has been reported from Abu Sa`id that the Messenger of Allah used to seek protection against the evil eyes of the Jinns and mankind. But when the Mu`awwidhatayn were revealed, he used them (for protection) and abandoned all else besides them. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah recorded this. At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ وَمِن شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَـٰتِ فِى ٱلۡعُقَدِ وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq,'') (2. "From the evil of what He has created,'') (3. "And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,'') (4. "And from the evil of the blowers in knots,'') (5. "And from the evil of the envier when he envies.'') Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir said, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' The same has been reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Aqil, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Ibn Zayd. Malik also reported a similar statement from Zayd bin Aslam. Al-Qurazi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir all said, "This is like Allah's saying,

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ

(He is the Cleaver of the daybreak.).'' (6:96) Allah said,

﴿ مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

(From the evil of what He has created,) This means from the evil of all created things. Thabit Al-Bunani and Al-Hasan Al-Basri both said, "Hell, Iblis and his progeny, from among that which He (Allah) created.''

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) Mujahid said, "Ghasiq is the night, and `when it Waqab' refers to the setting of the sun.'' Al-Bukhari mentioned this from him. Ibn Abi Najih also reported a similar narration from him (Mujahid).

The same was said by Ibn `Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, Khusayf, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. They said, "Verily, it is the night when it advances with its darkness.'' Az-Zuhri said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) "This means the sun when it sets.'' Abu Al-Muhazzim reported that Abu Hurayrah said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) "This means the star.'' Ibn Zayd said, "The Arabs used to say, `Al-Ghasiq is the declination (of the position) of the heavenly body known as Pleiades. The number of those who were ill and stricken with plague would increase whenever it would decline, and their number would lessen whenever it rose.'''

Ibn Jarir said, "Others have said that it is the moon.''

The support for the people who hold this position (that it means the moon) is a narration that Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Harith bin Abi Salamah. He said that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah took me by my hand and showed me the moon when it rose, and he said,

« تَعَوَّذِي بِاللهِ مِنْ شَرِّ هَذَا الْغَاسِقِ إِذَا وَقَبَ »

(Seek refuge with Allah from the evil of this Ghasiq when it becomes dark.)'' At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i both recorded this Hadith in their Books of Tafsir in their Sunans. Allah said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَـٰتِ فِى ٱلۡعُقَدِ

(And from the evil of the blowers in knots,) Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak all said, "This means the witches.'' Mujahid said, "When they perform their spells and blow into the knots.''

In another Hadith it has been reported that Jibril came to the Prophet and said, "Are you suffering from any ailment, O Muhammad'' The Prophet replied,

« نَعَمْ »

(Yes.) So Jibril said, "In the Name of Allah, I recite prayer (Ruqyah) over you, from every illness that harms you, from the evil of every envious person and evil eye. May Allah cure you.''

Discussion of the Bewitchment of the Prophet

In the Book of Medicine of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah was bewitched until he thought that he had relations with his wives, but he had not had relations with them.'' Sufyan said, "This is the worst form of magic when it reaches this stage.'' So the Prophet said,

« يَا عَائِشَةُ، أَعَلِمْتِ أَنَّ اللهَ قَدْ أَفْتَانِي فِيمَا اسْتَفْتَيْتُهُ فِيهِ؟ أَتَانِي رَجُلَانِ فَقَعَدَ أَحَدُهُمَا عِنْدَ رَأْسِي وَالْاخَرُ عِنْدَ رِجْلَيَّ، فَقَال الَّذِي عِنْدَ رَأْسِي لِلْاخَرِ: مَا بَالُ الرَّجُلِ؟ قَالَ: مَطْبُوبٌ، قَالَ: وَمَنْ طَبَّهُ، قَالَ: لَبِيدُ بْنُ أَعْصَمَ: رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي زُرَيْقٍ حَلِيفٌ لِيَهُودَ، كَانَ مُنَافِقًا، قَالَ: وَفِيمَ؟ قَالَ: فِي مُشْطٍ وَمُشَاطَةٍ، قَالَ: وَأَيْنَ؟ قَالَ: فِي جُفِّ طَلْعَةٍ ذَكَرٍ، تَحْتَ رَاعُوفَةٍ فِي بِئْرِ ذَرْوَانَ »

(O `A'ishah! Do you know that Allah has answered me concerning that which I asked Him Two men came to me and one of them sat by my head while the other sat by my feet. The one who was sitting by my head said to the other one, `What is wrong with this man' The other replied, `He is bewitched.' The first one said, `Who bewitched him' The other replied, `Labid bin A`sam. He is a man from the tribe of Banu Zurayq who is an ally of the Jews, and a hypocrite.' The first one asked, `With what (did he bewitch him)' The other replied, `With a comb and hair from the comb.' The first one asked, `Where (is the comb)' The other answered, `In the dried bark of a male date palm under a rock in a well called Dharwan.') `A'ishah said, "So he went to the well to remove it (the comb with the hair). Then he said,

« هَذِهِ الْبِئْرُ الَّتِي أُرِيتُهَا، وَكَأَنَّ مَاءَهَا نُقَاعَةُ الحِنَّاءِ، وَكَأَنَّ نَخْلَهَا رُؤُوسُ الشَّيَاطِين »

(This is the well that I saw. It was as if its water had henna soaked in it and its palm trees were like the heads of devils.) So he removed it (of the well). Then I (`A'ishah) said, `Will you not make this public' He replied,

« أَمَّا اللهُ فَقَدْ شَفَانِي، وَأَكْرَهُ أَنْ أُثِيرَ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ شَرًّا »

(Allah has cured me and I hate to spread (the news of) wickedness to any of the people.)''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ مَلِكِ ٱلنَّاسِ إِلَـٰهِ ٱلنَّاسِ مِن شَرِّ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ ٱلۡخَنَّاسِ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of An-Nas,'') (2. "The King of An-Nas,'') (3. "The God of An-Nas,'') (4. "From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws.'') (5. "Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.'') (6. "Of Jinn and An-Nas.'') These are three attributes from the attributes of the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. They are lordship, sovereignty and divinity. Thus, He is the Lord of everything, the King of everything and the God of everything. All things are created by Him, owned by Him, and subservient to Him. Therefore, He commands whoever is seeking protection to seek refuge with the One Who has these attributes from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws. This (the whisperer) is the devil that is assigned to man. For verily, there is not any of the Children of Adam except that he has a companion that beautifies wicked deeds for him. This devil will go to any lengths to confuse and confound him. The only person who is safe is He Whom Allah protects.

It is confirmed in the Sahih that he (the Prophet) said,

« مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا قَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ »

(There is not a single one of you except that his companion (a devil) has been assigned to him.) They (the Companions) said, "What about you, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,

« نَعَمْ، إِلَّا أَنَّ اللهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ، فَلَا يَأْمُرُنِي إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ »

(Yes. However, Allah has helped me against him and he has accepted Islam. Thus, he only commands me to do good.) It is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Anas, who reported the story of Safiyyah when she came to visit the Prophet while he was performing I`tikaf, that he went out with her during the night to walk her back to her house. So, two men from the Ansar met him (on the way). When they saw the Prophet, they began walking swiftly. So, the Messenger of Allah said,

« عَلَى رِسْلِكُمَا، إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَيَ »

(Slow down! This is Safiyyah bint Huyay!) They said, "Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah!'' He said,

« إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّم، وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْئًا، أَوْ قَالَ: شَرًّا »

(Verily, Shaytan runs in the Son of Adam like the running of the blood. And verily, I feared that he might cast something into your hearts - or he said evil.) Sa`id bin Jubayr reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ ٱلۡخَنَّاسِ

(The whisperer (Al-Waswas) who withdraws.) "The devil who is squatting (perched) upon the heart of the Son of Adam. So when he becomes absentminded and heedless he whispers. Then, when he remembers Allah he withdraws.'' Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.

Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman reported that his father said, "It has been mentioned to me that Shaytan is Al-Waswas. He blows into the heart of the Son of Adam when he is sad and when he is happy. But when he (man) remembers Allah, Shaytan withdraws.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas;

﴿ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ

(The whisperer.) "He is Shaytan. He whispers and then when he is obeyed, he withdraws.'' As for Allah's saying;

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Is this specific for the Children of Adam as is apparent, or is it general, including both mankind and Jinns

There are two views concerning this. This is because they (the Jinns) are also included in the usage of the word An-Nas (the people) in most cases.

Ibn Jarir said, "The phrase Rijalun min Al-Jinn (Men from the Jinns) has been used in reference to them, so it is not strange for the word An-Nas to be applied to them also.'' Then Allah says,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) Is this explanatory of Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Then, Allah explains this by saying,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) This is supportive of the second view. It has also been said that Allah's saying,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas) is an explanation of who is it that whispers into the breasts of mankind from the devils of mankind and Jinns. This is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ جَعَلۡنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِىٍّ عَدُوًّ۬ا شَيَـٰطِينَ ٱلۡإِنسِ وَٱلۡجِنِّ يُوحِى بَعۡضُهُمۡ إِلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬ زُخۡرُفَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ غُرُورً۬ا‌ۚ

(And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.) (6:112) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Sometimes I say things to myself that I would rather fall from the sky than say (aloud openly). 'The Prophet said,

« اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرٌ الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي رَدَّ كَيْدَهُ إِلَى الْوَسْوَسَةِ »

(Allah is Most Great! Allah is Most Great! All praise is due to Allah Who sent his (Shaytan's) plot back as only a whisper.)'' Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.

This is the end of the Tafsir. All praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.

(Every effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this publication. If, however, any errors are noticed by the reader, we would kindly request notification to be corrected in future editions.)
The Position of Ibn Mas`ud concerning Al-Mu`awwidhatayn

Imam Ahmad recorded from Zirr bin Hubaysh that Ubayy bin Ka`b told him that Ibn Mas`ud did not record the Mu`awwidhatayn in his Mushaf (copy of the Qur'an). So Ubayy said, "I testify that the Messenger of Allah informed me that Jibril said to him,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) So he said it. And Jibril said to him,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1) So he said it. Therefore, we say what the Prophet said.''

The Virtues of Surahs Al-Falaq and An-Nas

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded on the authority of `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَلَمْ تَرَ آيَاتٍ أُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ اللَّيْلَةَ لَمْ يُرَ مِثْلُهُنَّ قَطُّ:

(Do you not see that there have been Ayat revealed to me tonight the like of which has not been seen before). They are

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with, the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and;

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1)) This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

Another Narration

Imam Ahmad recorded from `Uqbah bin `Amir that he said, "While I was leading the Messenger of Allah along one of these paths he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ أَلَا تَرْكَبُ؟ »

(O `Uqbah! Will you not ride) I was afraid that this might be considered an act of disobedience. So the Messenger of Allah got down and I rode for a while. Then he rode. Then he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ، أَلَا أُعَلِّمُكَ سُورَتَيْنِ مِنْ خَيْرِ سُورَتَيْنِ قَرَأَ بِهِمَا النَّاسُ؟ »

(O `Uqbah! Should I not teach you two Surahs that are of the best two Surahs that the people recite) I said, `Of course, O Messenger of Allah.' So he taught me to recite

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') (114:1) Then the call was given to begin the prayer and the Messenger of Allah went forward (to lead the people), and he recited them in the prayer. Afterwards he passed by me and said,

« كَيْفَ رَأَيْتَ يَا عُقَيْبُ، اقْرَأْ بِهِمَا كُلَّمَا نِمْتَ وَكُلَّمَا قُمْتَ »

(What do you think, O `Uqayb Recite these two Surahs whenever you go to sleep and whenever you get up.)''

An-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud both recorded this Hadith.

Another Narration
« إِنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَتَعَوَّذُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَيْنِ:

(Verily, the people do not seek protection with anything like these two:

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (113:1) and;

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind.'')) (114:1)

Another Narration

An-Nasa'i recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir said, "I was walking with the Messenger of Allah when he said,

« يَا عُقْبَةُ قُلْ »

(O `Uqbah! Say!) I replied, `What should I say', so he was silent and did not respond to me. Then he said,

« قُلْ »

(Say!) I replied, `What should I say, O Messenger of Allah' He said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') So, I recited it until I reached its end. Then he said,

« قُلْ »

(Say!) I replied, `What should I say O Messenger of Allah' He said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') So, I recited it until I reached its end. Then the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَا سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِمِثْلِهَا، وَلَا اسْتَعَاذَ مُسْتَعِيذٌ بِمِثْلِهَا »

(No person beseeches with anything like these, and no person seeks refuge with anything like these.)''

Another Hadith

An-Nasa'i recorded that Ibn `Abis Al-Juhani said that the Prophet said to him,

« يَا ابْنَ عَابِسٍ أَلَا أَدُلُّكَ أَوْ أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ بِأَفْضَلِ مَا يَتَعَوَّذُ بِهِ الْمُتَعَوِّذُونَ؟ »

(O Ibn `Abis! Shall I guide you to -- or inform you -- of the best thing that those who seek protection use for protection) He replied, "Of course, O Messenger of Allah!'' The Prophet said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ
﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ
هَاتَانِ السُّورَتَانِ »

(Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq.'') (and (Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind.'') ( These two Surahs (are the best protection).) Imam Malik recorded from `A'ishah that whenever the Messenger of Allah was suffering from an ailment, he would recite the Mu`awwidhatayn over himself and blow (over himself). Then if his pain became severe, `A'ishah said that she would recite the Mu`awwidhatayn over him and take his hand and wipe it over himself seeking the blessing of those Surahs. Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah all recorded this Hadith.

It has been reported from Abu Sa`id that the Messenger of Allah used to seek protection against the evil eyes of the Jinns and mankind. But when the Mu`awwidhatayn were revealed, he used them (for protection) and abandoned all else besides them. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah recorded this. At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡفَلَقِ مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ وَمِن شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَـٰتِ فِى ٱلۡعُقَدِ وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Al-Falaq,'') (2. "From the evil of what He has created,'') (3. "And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,'') (4. "And from the evil of the blowers in knots,'') (5. "And from the evil of the envier when he envies.'') Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir said, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Al-Falaq is the morning.'' The same has been reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Aqil, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Ibn Zayd. Malik also reported a similar statement from Zayd bin Aslam. Al-Qurazi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir all said, "This is like Allah's saying,

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ

(He is the Cleaver of the daybreak.).'' (6:96) Allah said,

﴿ مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

(From the evil of what He has created,) This means from the evil of all created things. Thabit Al-Bunani and Al-Hasan Al-Basri both said, "Hell, Iblis and his progeny, from among that which He (Allah) created.''

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) Mujahid said, "Ghasiq is the night, and `when it Waqab' refers to the setting of the sun.'' Al-Bukhari mentioned this from him. Ibn Abi Najih also reported a similar narration from him (Mujahid).

The same was said by Ibn `Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, Khusayf, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. They said, "Verily, it is the night when it advances with its darkness.'' Az-Zuhri said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) "This means the sun when it sets.'' Abu Al-Muhazzim reported that Abu Hurayrah said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

(And from the evil of the Ghasiq when Waqab,) "This means the star.'' Ibn Zayd said, "The Arabs used to say, `Al-Ghasiq is the declination (of the position) of the heavenly body known as Pleiades. The number of those who were ill and stricken with plague would increase whenever it would decline, and their number would lessen whenever it rose.'''

Ibn Jarir said, "Others have said that it is the moon.''

The support for the people who hold this position (that it means the moon) is a narration that Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Harith bin Abi Salamah. He said that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah took me by my hand and showed me the moon when it rose, and he said,

« تَعَوَّذِي بِاللهِ مِنْ شَرِّ هَذَا الْغَاسِقِ إِذَا وَقَبَ »

(Seek refuge with Allah from the evil of this Ghasiq when it becomes dark.)'' At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i both recorded this Hadith in their Books of Tafsir in their Sunans. Allah said,

﴿ وَمِن شَرِّ ٱلنَّفَّـٰثَـٰتِ فِى ٱلۡعُقَدِ

(And from the evil of the blowers in knots,) Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak all said, "This means the witches.'' Mujahid said, "When they perform their spells and blow into the knots.''

In another Hadith it has been reported that Jibril came to the Prophet and said, "Are you suffering from any ailment, O Muhammad'' The Prophet replied,

« نَعَمْ »

(Yes.) So Jibril said, "In the Name of Allah, I recite prayer (Ruqyah) over you, from every illness that harms you, from the evil of every envious person and evil eye. May Allah cure you.''

Discussion of the Bewitchment of the Prophet

In the Book of Medicine of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said, "The Messenger of Allah was bewitched until he thought that he had relations with his wives, but he had not had relations with them.'' Sufyan said, "This is the worst form of magic when it reaches this stage.'' So the Prophet said,

« يَا عَائِشَةُ، أَعَلِمْتِ أَنَّ اللهَ قَدْ أَفْتَانِي فِيمَا اسْتَفْتَيْتُهُ فِيهِ؟ أَتَانِي رَجُلَانِ فَقَعَدَ أَحَدُهُمَا عِنْدَ رَأْسِي وَالْاخَرُ عِنْدَ رِجْلَيَّ، فَقَال الَّذِي عِنْدَ رَأْسِي لِلْاخَرِ: مَا بَالُ الرَّجُلِ؟ قَالَ: مَطْبُوبٌ، قَالَ: وَمَنْ طَبَّهُ، قَالَ: لَبِيدُ بْنُ أَعْصَمَ: رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي زُرَيْقٍ حَلِيفٌ لِيَهُودَ، كَانَ مُنَافِقًا، قَالَ: وَفِيمَ؟ قَالَ: فِي مُشْطٍ وَمُشَاطَةٍ، قَالَ: وَأَيْنَ؟ قَالَ: فِي جُفِّ طَلْعَةٍ ذَكَرٍ، تَحْتَ رَاعُوفَةٍ فِي بِئْرِ ذَرْوَانَ »

(O `A'ishah! Do you know that Allah has answered me concerning that which I asked Him Two men came to me and one of them sat by my head while the other sat by my feet. The one who was sitting by my head said to the other one, `What is wrong with this man' The other replied, `He is bewitched.' The first one said, `Who bewitched him' The other replied, `Labid bin A`sam. He is a man from the tribe of Banu Zurayq who is an ally of the Jews, and a hypocrite.' The first one asked, `With what (did he bewitch him)' The other replied, `With a comb and hair from the comb.' The first one asked, `Where (is the comb)' The other answered, `In the dried bark of a male date palm under a rock in a well called Dharwan.') `A'ishah said, "So he went to the well to remove it (the comb with the hair). Then he said,

« هَذِهِ الْبِئْرُ الَّتِي أُرِيتُهَا، وَكَأَنَّ مَاءَهَا نُقَاعَةُ الحِنَّاءِ، وَكَأَنَّ نَخْلَهَا رُؤُوسُ الشَّيَاطِين »

(This is the well that I saw. It was as if its water had henna soaked in it and its palm trees were like the heads of devils.) So he removed it (of the well). Then I (`A'ishah) said, `Will you not make this public' He replied,

« أَمَّا اللهُ فَقَدْ شَفَانِي، وَأَكْرَهُ أَنْ أُثِيرَ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ شَرًّا »

(Allah has cured me and I hate to spread (the news of) wickedness to any of the people.)''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ قُلۡ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ ٱلنَّاسِ مَلِكِ ٱلنَّاسِ إِلَـٰهِ ٱلنَّاسِ مِن شَرِّ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ ٱلۡخَنَّاسِ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(1. Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of An-Nas,'') (2. "The King of An-Nas,'') (3. "The God of An-Nas,'') (4. "From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws.'') (5. "Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.'') (6. "Of Jinn and An-Nas.'') These are three attributes from the attributes of the Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. They are lordship, sovereignty and divinity. Thus, He is the Lord of everything, the King of everything and the God of everything. All things are created by Him, owned by Him, and subservient to Him. Therefore, He commands whoever is seeking protection to seek refuge with the One Who has these attributes from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws. This (the whisperer) is the devil that is assigned to man. For verily, there is not any of the Children of Adam except that he has a companion that beautifies wicked deeds for him. This devil will go to any lengths to confuse and confound him. The only person who is safe is He Whom Allah protects.

It is confirmed in the Sahih that he (the Prophet) said,

« مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا قَدْ وُكِّلَ بِهِ قَرِينُهُ »

(There is not a single one of you except that his companion (a devil) has been assigned to him.) They (the Companions) said, "What about you, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,

« نَعَمْ، إِلَّا أَنَّ اللهَ أَعَانَنِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَسْلَمَ، فَلَا يَأْمُرُنِي إِلَّا بِخَيْرٍ »

(Yes. However, Allah has helped me against him and he has accepted Islam. Thus, he only commands me to do good.) It is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Anas, who reported the story of Safiyyah when she came to visit the Prophet while he was performing I`tikaf, that he went out with her during the night to walk her back to her house. So, two men from the Ansar met him (on the way). When they saw the Prophet, they began walking swiftly. So, the Messenger of Allah said,

« عَلَى رِسْلِكُمَا، إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَيَ »

(Slow down! This is Safiyyah bint Huyay!) They said, "Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah!'' He said,

« إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّم، وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْئًا، أَوْ قَالَ: شَرًّا »

(Verily, Shaytan runs in the Son of Adam like the running of the blood. And verily, I feared that he might cast something into your hearts - or he said evil.) Sa`id bin Jubayr reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ ٱلۡخَنَّاسِ

(The whisperer (Al-Waswas) who withdraws.) "The devil who is squatting (perched) upon the heart of the Son of Adam. So when he becomes absentminded and heedless he whispers. Then, when he remembers Allah he withdraws.'' Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.

Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman reported that his father said, "It has been mentioned to me that Shaytan is Al-Waswas. He blows into the heart of the Son of Adam when he is sad and when he is happy. But when he (man) remembers Allah, Shaytan withdraws.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas;

﴿ ٱلۡوَسۡوَاسِ

(The whisperer.) "He is Shaytan. He whispers and then when he is obeyed, he withdraws.'' As for Allah's saying;

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Is this specific for the Children of Adam as is apparent, or is it general, including both mankind and Jinns

There are two views concerning this. This is because they (the Jinns) are also included in the usage of the word An-Nas (the people) in most cases.

Ibn Jarir said, "The phrase Rijalun min Al-Jinn (Men from the Jinns) has been used in reference to them, so it is not strange for the word An-Nas to be applied to them also.'' Then Allah says,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) Is this explanatory of Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يُوَسۡوِسُ فِى صُدُورِ ٱلنَّاسِ

(Who whispers in the breasts of An-Nas.) Then, Allah explains this by saying,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas.) This is supportive of the second view. It has also been said that Allah's saying,

﴿ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ

(Of Jinn and An-Nas) is an explanation of who is it that whispers into the breasts of mankind from the devils of mankind and Jinns. This is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ جَعَلۡنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِىٍّ عَدُوًّ۬ا شَيَـٰطِينَ ٱلۡإِنسِ وَٱلۡجِنِّ يُوحِى بَعۡضُهُمۡ إِلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬ زُخۡرُفَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ غُرُورً۬ا‌ۚ

(And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.) (6:112) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Sometimes I say things to myself that I would rather fall from the sky than say (aloud openly). 'The Prophet said,

« اللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللهُ أَكْبَرٌ الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي رَدَّ كَيْدَهُ إِلَى الْوَسْوَسَةِ »

(Allah is Most Great! Allah is Most Great! All praise is due to Allah Who sent his (Shaytan's) plot back as only a whisper.)'' Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.

This is the end of the Tafsir. All praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.

(Every effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this publication. If, however, any errors are noticed by the reader, we would kindly request notification to be corrected in future editions.)