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The Reason and Wisdom Behind the Defeat at Uhud

Allah said,

﴿ أَوَلَمَّآ أَصَـٰبَتۡكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ۬

(When a single disaster smites you), in reference to when the Muslims suffered seventy fatalities during the battle of Uhud,

﴿ قَدۡ أَصَبۡتُم مِّثۡلَيۡہَا

(although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great,) during Badr, when the Muslims killed seventy Mushriks and captured seventy others,

﴿ قُلۡتُمۡ أَنَّىٰ هَـٰذَا‌ۖ

(you say: "From where does this come to us'') why did this defeat happen to us

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ مِنۡ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمۡ‌ۗ

(Say, "It is from yourselves.'') Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "When Uhud occurred, a year after Badr, Muslims were punished for taking ransom from the disbelievers at Badr )in return for releasing the Mushriks whom they captured in that battle(. Thus, they suffered the loss of seventy fatalities and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah gave flight and abandoned him. The Messenger suffered a broken tooth, the helmet was smashed on his head and blood flowed onto his face. Allah then revealed,

﴿ أَوَلَمَّآ أَصَـٰبَتۡكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ۬ قَدۡ أَصَبۡتُم مِّثۡلَيۡہَا قُلۡتُمۡ أَنَّىٰ هَـٰذَا‌ۖ قُلۡ هُوَ مِنۡ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمۡ‌ۗ

(When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: "From where does this come to us'' Say, "It is from yourselves''.), because you took the ransom.'' Furthermore, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Ibn Jurayj, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said that the Ayah,

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ مِنۡ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمۡ‌ۗ

(Say, "It is from yourselves.'') means, because you, the archers, disobeyed the Messenger's command to not abandon your positions.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬

(And Allah has power over all things.) and He does what He wills and decides what He wills, and there is none who can resist His decision.

Allah then said,

﴿ وَمَآ أَصَـٰبَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡتَقَى ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِ فَبِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ

(And what you suffered on the day the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah), for when you ran away from your enemy, who killed many of you and injured many others, all this occurred by Allah's will and decree out of His perfect wisdom,

﴿ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

(in order that He might test the believers.) who were patient, firm and were not shaken,

﴿ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ‌ۚ وَقِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ قَـٰتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَوِ ٱدۡفَعُواْ‌ۖ قَالُواْ لَوۡ نَعۡلَمُ قِتَالاً۬ لَّٱتَّبَعۡنَـٰكُمۡ‌ۗ

(And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: "Come, fight in the way of Allah or defend yourselves.'' They said: "Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.'') (3:167),

This refers to the Companions of `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul who went back (to Al-Madinah) with him before the battle. Some believers followed them and encouraged them to come back and fight, saying,

﴿ أَوِ ٱدۡفَعُواْ‌ۖ

(or defend), so that the number of Muslims increases, as Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi stated. Al-Hasan bin Salih said that this part of the Ayah means, help by supplicating for us, while others said it means, man the posts. However, they refused, saying,

﴿ لَوۡ نَعۡلَمُ قِتَالاً۬ لَّٱتَّبَعۡنَـٰكُمۡ‌ۗ

("Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.'') meaning, according to Mujahid, if we knew that you would fight today, we would join you, but we think you will not fight. Allah said,

﴿ هُمۡ لِلۡڪُفۡرِ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ أَقۡرَبُ مِنۡہُمۡ لِلۡإِيمَـٰنِ‌ۚ

(They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to faith,)

This Ayah indicates that a person passes through various stages, sometimes being closer to Kufr and sometimes closer to faith, as evident by,

﴿ هُمۡ لِلۡڪُفۡرِ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ أَقۡرَبُ مِنۡہُمۡ لِلۡإِيمَـٰنِ‌ۚ

(They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to faith,)

Allah then said,

﴿ يَقُولُونَ بِأَفۡوَٲهِهِم مَّا لَيۡسَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمۡ‌ۗ

(saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts.) for they utter what they do not truly believe in, such as,

﴿ لَوۡ نَعۡلَمُ قِتَالاً۬ لَّٱتَّبَعۡنَـٰكُمۡ‌ۗ

("Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.'')

They knew that there was an army of idolaters that came from a far land raging against the Muslims, to avenge their noble men whom the Muslims killed in Badr. These idolaters came in larger numbers than the Muslims, so it was clear that a battle will certainly occur. Allah said;

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يَكۡتُمُونَ

(And Allah has full knowledge of what they conceal.)

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ لِإِخۡوَٲنِہِمۡ وَقَعَدُواْ لَوۡ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُواْ‌ۗ

((They are) the ones who said about their killed brethren while they themselves sat (at home): "If only they had listened to us, they would not have been killed.'') had they listened to our advice and not gone out, they would not have met their demise. Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ فَٱدۡرَءُواْ عَنۡ أَنفُسِڪُمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(Say: "Avert death from your own selves, if you speak the truth.'') meaning, if staying at home saves one from being killed or from death, then you should not die. However death will come to you even if you were hiding in fortified castles. Therefore, fend death off of yourselves, if you are right.

Mujahid said that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "This Ayah (3:168) was revealed about `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul (the chief hypocrite).''

﴿ وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢا‌ۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَلۡحَقُواْ بِہِم مِّنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ أَلَّا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ يَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَآ أَصَابَہُمُ ٱلۡقَرۡحُ‌ۚ لِلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ مِنۡہُمۡ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّ ٱلنَّاسَ قَدۡ جَمَعُواْ لَكُمۡ فَٱخۡشَوۡهُمۡ فَزَادَهُمۡ إِيمَـٰنً۬ا وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡوَڪِيلُ فَٱنقَلَبُواْ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ لَّمۡ يَمۡسَسۡہُمۡ سُوٓءٌ۬ وَٱتَّبَعُواْ رِضۡوَٲنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو فَضۡلٍ عَظِيمٍ إِنَّمَا ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُ ۥ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمۡ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ

(169. Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.) (170. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.) (171. They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers.) (172. Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.) (173. Those to whom the people said, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' But it (only) increased them in faith, and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.'') (174. So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them; and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.) (175. It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends; so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.)

Virtues of the Martyrs

Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, "We asked `Abdullah about this Ayah,

﴿ وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢا‌ۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ

(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)

He said, `We asked the Messenger of Allah the same question and he said,

« أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي جَوْفِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ، لَهَا قَنَادِيلُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ، تَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شَاءَتْ، ثُمَّ تَأْوِي إِلَى تِلْكَ الْقَنَادِيلِ، فَاطَّلَعَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمُ اطِّلَاعَةً فَقَالَ: هَلْ تَشْتَهُونَ شَيْئًا؟ فَقَالُوا: أَيَّ شَيْءٍ نَشْتَهِي وَنَحْنُ نَسْرَحُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ شِئْنَا؟ فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ، فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُتْرَكُوا مِنْ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوا، قَالُوا: يَا رَبِّ نُرِيدُ أَنْ تَرُدَّ أَرْوَاحَنَا فِي أَجْسَادِنَا حَتَّى نُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِكَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى، فَلَمَّا رَأَى أَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ حَاجَةٌ، تُرِكُوا »

(Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps. Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything' They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise' Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.' Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.)''' There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَا مِنْ نَفْسٍ تَمُوتُ، لَهَا عِنْدَ اللهِ خَيْرٌ، يَسُرُّهَا أَنْ تَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا، إِلَّا الشَّهِيدُ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسُرُّهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا فَيُقْتَلَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى، لِمَا يَرَى مِنْ فَضْلِ الشَهَادَة »

(No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.) Muslim collected this Hadith

In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَمَّا أُصِيبَ إِخْوَانُكُمْ بِأُحُدٍ، جَعَلَ اللهُ أَرْوَاحَهُمْ فِي أَجْوَافِ طَيْرٍ خُضْرٍ، تَرِدُ أَنْهَارَ الْجَنَّـةِ، وَتَأْكُلُ مِنْ ثِمَارِهَا، وَتَأْوِي إِلى قَنَادِيلَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ فِي ظِلِّ الْعَرْشِ، فَلَمَّا وَجَدُوا طِيبَ مَشْرَبِهِمْ وَمَأْكَلِهِمْ، وَحُسْنَ مُتَقَلَّبِهِمْ قَالُوا: يَا لَيْتَ إِخْوَانَنَا يَعْلَمُونَ مَا صَنَعَ اللهُ لَنَا، لِئَلَّا يَزْهَدُوا فِي الْجِهَادِ، وَلَا يَنْكُلُوا عَنِ الْحَرْبِ، فَقَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: أَنْا أُبَلِّغُهُمْ عَنْكُم »

(When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.' Allah said, `I will convey the news for you.') Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,

﴿ وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢا‌ۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ

(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.)

Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak said that these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.

Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad' I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.' He said,

« أَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ؟ مَا كَلَّمَ اللهُ أَحَدًا قَطُّ إِلَّا مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ، وَإِنَّه كَلَّمَ أَبَاكَ كِفَاحًا »
، قال علي: الكفاح: المواجهة
« قَالَ: سَلْنِي أُعْطِكَ. قَالَ: أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ أُرَدَّ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا فَأُقْتَلَ فِيكَ ثَانِيَةً، فَقَالَ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: إِنَّهُ قَدْ سَبَقَ مِنِّي الْقَوْلُ: إِنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهَا لَا يَرْجِعُونَ. قَالَ: أَيْ رَبِّ فَأَبْلِغْ مَنْ وَرَائِي »

(Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil However, He spoke to your father directly. He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.' He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.' The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life). ' He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those I left behind.') Allah revealed,

﴿ وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢا‌ۚ

(Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah...)''

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« الشُّهَدَاءُ عَلى بَارِقِ نَهْرٍ بِبَابِ الْجَنَّـةِ، فِي قُبَّةٍ خَضْرَاءَ، يَخْرُجُ عَلَيْهِمْ رِزْقُهُمْ مِنَ الْجَنَّـةِ بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا »

(The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.)

Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best. Ulmam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him. This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams. Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« نَسَمَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِ طَائِرٌ يَعْلُقُ فِي شَجَرِ الْجَنَّـةِ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَهُ اللهُ إِلى جَسَدِهِ يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُه »

(The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.)

This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.

Allah's statement,

﴿ فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ

(They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them) indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah's cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah's cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise. The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, "A part of the Qur'an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.'''

Allah said next,

﴿ يَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

(They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers) (3:171).

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "They were delighted and pleased because of Allah's promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.''

The Battle of Hamra' Al-Asad

Allah said,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَآ أَصَابَہُمُ ٱلۡقَرۡحُ‌ۚ

(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded) (3:172).

This occurred on the day of Hamra' Al-Asad. After the idolaters defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight. The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "When the idolaters returned )towards Makkah( after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.' When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad. The idolaters said, `Rather, we will meet next year', and the Messenger of Allah went back )to Al-Madinah(, and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَآ أَصَابَہُمُ ٱلۡقَرۡحُ‌ۚ لِلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ مِنۡہُمۡ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ

(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.)

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah said to `Urwah about the Ayah;

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ

(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger)

"My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them. After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolaters went back, he feared that the idolaters might try to come back and he said, `Who would follow them' Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.

As for Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّ ٱلنَّاسَ قَدۡ جَمَعُواْ لَكُمۡ فَٱخۡشَوۡهُمۡ فَزَادَهُمۡ إِيمَـٰنً۬ا

(Those unto whom the people said, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' But it (only) increased them in faith) (3:173), it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help,

﴿ وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡوَڪِيلُ

(and they said: "Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.'')

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡوَڪِيلُ

("Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.'')

"Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire. Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.' But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.''' Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud, "Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.'' Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah (3:173).

This is why Allah said,

﴿ فَٱنقَلَبُواْ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ لَّمۡ يَمۡسَسۡہُمۡ سُوٓءٌ۬

(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land,

﴿ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ لَّمۡ يَمۡسَسۡہُمۡ سُوٓءٌ۬

(with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) safe from the wicked plots of their enemies,

﴿ وَٱتَّبَعُواْ رِضۡوَٲنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو فَضۡلٍ عَظِيمٍ

(and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.)

Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

﴿ فَٱنقَلَبُواْ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬

(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah,) "The `Grace' was that they were saved. The `Bounty' was that a caravan passed by, and those days were )Hajj) season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.''

Allah then said,

﴿ إِنَّمَا ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُ ۥ

(It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends,))3:175( meaning, Shaytan threatens you with his friends and tries to pretend they are powerful and fearsome. Allah said next,

﴿ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمۡ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ

(so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning, "If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me. Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.'' Similarly, Allah said,

﴿ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبۡدَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِٱلَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِۦ‌ۚ

(Is not Allah Sufficient for His servant Yet they try to frighten you with those besides Him!) (39: 36), until,

﴿ قُلۡ حَسۡبِىَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ عَلَيۡهِ يَتَوَڪَّلُ ٱلۡمُتَوَكِّلُونَ

(Say: "Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust must put their trust.'') (39:38). Allah said,

﴿ فَقَـٰتِلُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ‌ۖ إِنَّ كَيۡدَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا

(So fight you against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.) (4:76) and

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حِزۡبُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ‌ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(They are the party of Shaytan. Verily, it is the party of Shaytan that will be the losers!) (58:19),

﴿ ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَا۟ وَرُسُلِىٓ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ۬

(Allah has decreed: "Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.) (58:21) and

﴿ وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ ۥۤ‌ۗ

(Verily, Allah will help those who help His (cause).) (22:40) and

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِن تَنصُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ يَنصُرۡكُمۡ

(O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you) (47:7), and,

﴿ إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَيَوۡمَ يَقُومُ ٱلۡأَشۡهَـٰدُ يَوۡمَ لَا يَنفَعُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مَعۡذِرَتُہُمۡۖ وَلَهُمُ ٱللَّعۡنَةُ وَلَهُمۡ سُوٓءُ ٱلدَّارِ

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) (40:51, 52)

﴿ وَلَا يَحۡزُنكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُسَـٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلۡكُفۡرِ‌ۚ إِنَّهُمۡ لَن يَضُرُّواْ ٱللَّهَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا‌ۗ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَلَّا يَجۡعَلَ لَهُمۡ حَظًّ۬ا فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ ٱلۡكُفۡرَ بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ لَن يَضُرُّواْ ٱللَّهَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬ وَلَا يَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّمَا نُمۡلِى لَهُمۡ خَيۡرٌ۬ لِّأَنفُسِہِمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّمَا نُمۡلِى لَهُمۡ لِيَزۡدَادُوٓاْ إِثۡمً۬ا‌ۚ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬
﴿ مَّا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ عَلَىٰ مَآ أَنتُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ حَتَّىٰ يَمِيزَ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ‌ۗ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُطۡلِعَكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَجۡتَبِى مِن رُّسُلِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۖ فَـَٔامِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ‌ۚ وَإِن تُؤۡمِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَلَكُمۡ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ۬ وَلَا يَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَبۡخَلُونَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ هُوَ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّهُم‌ۖ بَلۡ هُوَ شَرٌّ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۖ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُواْ بِهِۦ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ وَلِلَّهِ مِيرَٲثُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

(176. And let not those grieve you who rush with haste to disbelieve; verily, not the least harm will they do to Allah. It is Allah's will to give them no portion in the Hereafter. For them there is a great torment.) (177. Verily, those who purchase disbelief at the price of faith, not the least harm will they do to Allah. For them, there is a painful torment.) (178. And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing their punishment is good for them. We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness. And for them is a disgraceful torment.) (179. Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen, but Allah chooses of His Messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And if you believe and have Taqwa of Allah, then for you there is a great reward.) (180. And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them; the things that they were stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah's is the inheritance of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is Well-Acquainted with all that you do.)