;
The Censure of Selfishness, and Warning Against it

Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا يَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَبۡخَلُونَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ هُوَ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّهُم‌ۖ بَلۡ هُوَ شَرٌّ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۖ

(And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty (wealth) think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them.) (3:180)

Therefore, the Ayah says that the miser should not think that collecting money will benefit him. Rather, it will harm him in his religion and worldly affairs. Allah mentions the money that the miser collected on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُواْ بِهِۦ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ

(the things that they stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ آتَاهُ اللهُ مَالًا فَلَمْ يُؤَدِّ زَكَاتَهُ، مُثِّلَ لَهُ شُجَاعًا أَقْرَعَ، لَهُ زَبِيبَتَانِ، يُطَوَّقُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، يَأْخُذُ بِلِهْزِمَتَيْهِ يَعْنِي بِشِدْقَيْهِ يَقُولُ: أَنَا مَالُكَ، أَنَا كَنْزُك »

(Whoever Allah makes wealthy and he does not pay the Zakah due on his wealth, then (on the Day of Resurrection) his wealth will be made in the likeness of a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and proclaim, `I am your wealth, I am your treasure.')

The Prophet then recited the Ayah,

﴿ وَلَا يَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَبۡخَلُونَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ هُوَ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّهُم‌ۖ بَلۡ هُوَ شَرٌّ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۖ

(And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them), until the end. Al-Bukhari, but not Muslim, collected this Hadith using this chain of narration, Ibn Hibban also collected it in his Sahih.

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said that the Prophet said,

« مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍلَا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاةَ مَالِهِ إِلَّا جُعِلَ لَهُ شُجَاعٌ أَقْرَعُ يَتْبَعُهُ، يَفِرُّ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ يَتْبَعُهُ، فَيَقُولُ: أَنَا كَنْزُك »

(Every person who does not pay the Zakah due on his wealth, will have his money made into the shape of a bald-headed, poisonous male snake who will follow him. The person will run away from the snake, who will follow him and proclaim, `I am your treasure.')

`Abdullah then recited the Ayah in Allah's Book that testifies to this fact,

﴿ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُواْ بِهِۦ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ

(the things that they were stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.)

This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلِلَّهِ مِيرَٲثُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ

(And to Allah belongs the inheritance of the heavens and the Earth), means,

﴿ وَأَنفِقُواْ مِمَّا جَعَلَكُم مُّسۡتَخۡلَفِينَ فِيهِ‌ۖ

(and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees) (57: 7). Therefore, since all affairs are under Allah's control, then spend from your money so it will benefit you on the Day of Return,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

(and Allah is Well-Acquainted with all that you do.) with your intentions and what your hearts conceal.

﴿ لَّقَدۡ سَمِعَ ٱللَّهُ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَقِيرٌ۬ وَنَحۡنُ أَغۡنِيَآءُ‌ۘ سَنَكۡتُبُ مَا قَالُواْ وَقَتۡلَهُمُ ٱلۡأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقٍّ۬ وَنَقُولُ ذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ ذَٲلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيڪُمۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَيۡسَ بِظَلَّـٰمٍ۬ لِّلۡعَبِيدِ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَهِدَ إِلَيۡنَآ أَلَّا نُؤۡمِنَ لِرَسُولٍ حَتَّىٰ يَأۡتِيَنَا بِقُرۡبَانٍ۬ تَأۡڪُلُهُ ٱلنَّارُ‌ۗ قُلۡ قَدۡ جَآءَكُمۡ رُسُلٌ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِى بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَبِٱلَّذِى قُلۡتُمۡ فَلِمَ قَتَلۡتُمُوهُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ
﴿ فَإِن ڪَذَّبُوكَ فَقَدۡ كُذِّبَ رُسُلٌ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ جَآءُو بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَٱلزُّبُرِ وَٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ ٱلۡمُنِيرِ

(181. Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those who say: "Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!'' We shall record what they have said and their killing of the Prophets unjustly, and We shall say: "Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).'') (182. This is because of that which your hands have sent before you. And certainly, Allah is never unjust to (His) servants.) (183. Those who said: "Verily, Allah has taken our promise not to believe in any Messenger unless he brings to us an offering which the fire (from heaven) shall devour. '' Say: "Verily, there came to you Messengers before me, with Al-Bayinat and even with what you speak of; why then did you kill them, if you are truthful'') (184. Then if they reject you, so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Bayinat and the Scriptures and the Book of Enlightenment.)

Allah Warns the Idolators

Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas said, "When Allah's statement,

﴿ مَّن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يُقۡرِضُ ٱللَّهَ قَرۡضًا حَسَنً۬ا فَيُضَـٰعِفَهُ ۥ لَهُ ۥۤ أَضۡعَافً۬ا ڪَثِيرَةً۬‌ۚ

(Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times))2:245( was revealed, the Jews said, `O Muhammad! Has your Lord become poor so that He asks His servants to give Him a loan' Allah sent down,

﴿ لَّقَدۡ سَمِعَ ٱللَّهُ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَقِيرٌ۬ وَنَحۡنُ أَغۡنِيَآءُ‌ۘ

(Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those (Jews) who say: "Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!'') (3:181).''

This Hadith was collected by Ibn Marduwyah and Ibn Abi Hatim.

Allah's statement,

﴿ سَنَكۡتُبُ مَا قَالُواْ

(We shall record what they have said) contains a threat and a warning that Allah followed with His statement,

﴿ وَقَتۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقٍّ۬

(and their killing of the Prophets unjustly,)

This is what they say about Allah and this is how they treat His Messengers. Allah will punish them for these deeds in the worst manner,

﴿ لَّقَدۡ سَمِعَ ٱللَّهُ قَوۡلَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَقِيرٌ۬ وَنَحۡنُ أَغۡنِيَآءُ‌ۘ سَنَكۡتُبُ مَا قَالُواْ وَقَتۡلَهُمُ ٱلۡأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقٍّ۬ وَنَقُولُ ذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ ذَٲلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيڪُمۡ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَيۡسَ بِظَلَّـٰمٍ۬ لِّلۡعَبِيدِ

(and We shall say: "Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).'' This is because of that which your hands have sent before you. And certainly, Allah is never unjust to (His) servants.)

They will be addressed like this as a way of chastising, criticism, disgrace and humiliation.

Allah said,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَهِدَ إِلَيۡنَآ أَلَّا نُؤۡمِنَ لِرَسُولٍ حَتَّىٰ يَأۡتِيَنَا بِقُرۡبَانٍ۬ تَأۡڪُلُهُ ٱلنَّارُ‌ۗ

(Those (Jews) who said: "Verily, Allah has taken our promise not to believe in any Messenger unless he brings to us an offering which the fire (from heaven) shall devour.'')

Allah refuted their claim that in their Books, Allah took a covenant from them to only believe in the Messenger whose miracles include fire coming down from the sky that consumes the charity offered by a member of the Messenger's nation, as Ibn `Abbas and Al-Hasan stated. Allah replied,

﴿ قُلۡ قَدۡ جَآءَكُمۡ رُسُلٌ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِى بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ

(Say: "Verily, there came to you Messengers before me, with Al-Bayinat...'') with proofs and evidence,

﴿ وَبِٱلَّذِى قُلۡتُمۡ

(and even with what you speak of) a fire that consumes the accepted charity, as you asked,

﴿ فَلِمَ قَتَلۡتُمُوهُمۡ

(why then did you kill them) Why did you meet these Prophets with denial, defiance, stubbornness and even murder,

﴿ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(if you are truthful), if you follow the truth and obey the Messengers.

Allah then comforts His Prophet Muhammad,

﴿ فَإِن ڪَذَّبُوكَ فَقَدۡ كُذِّبَ رُسُلٌ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ جَآءُو بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَٱلزُّبُرِ وَٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ ٱلۡمُنِيرِ

(Then if they reject you, so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Baiyyinat and the Scripture, and the Book of Enlightenment.) meaning, do not be sad because they deny you, for you have an example in the Messengers who came before you. These Messengers were rejected although they brought clear proofs, plain evidence and unequivocal signs,

﴿ وَٱلزُّبُرِ

(and the Zubur), the divinely revealed Books that were sent down to the Messengers,

﴿ وَٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ ٱلۡمُنِيرِ

(and the Book of Enlightenment) meaning the clarification and best explanation.

﴿ كُلُّ نَفۡسٍ۬ ذَآٮِٕقَةُ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ‌ۗ وَإِنَّمَا تُوَفَّوۡنَ أُجُورَڪُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۖ فَمَن زُحۡزِحَ عَنِ ٱلنَّارِ وَأُدۡخِلَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ فَقَدۡ فَازَ‌ۗ وَمَا ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَآ إِلَّا مَتَـٰعُ ٱلۡغُرُورِ
﴿ لَتُبۡلَوُنَّ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِڪُمۡ وَأَنفُسِڪُمۡ وَلَتَسۡمَعُنَّ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِڪُمۡ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُوٓاْ أَذً۬ى كَثِيرً۬ا‌ۚ وَإِن تَصۡبِرُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ مِنۡ عَزۡمِ ٱلۡأُمُورِ

(185. Everyone shall taste death. And only on the Day of Resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is moved away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception.) (186. You shall certainly be tried and tested in your wealth and properties and in yourselves, and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah; but if you persevere patiently, and have Taqwa, then verily, that will be a determining factor in all affairs.)