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Allah Does not Forgive Shirk, Except After Repenting From it

Allah said that He,

﴿ لَا يَغۡفِرُ أَن يُشۡرَكَ بِهِۦ

(forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship),) meaning, He does not forgive a servant if he meets Him while he is associating partners with Him,

﴿ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٲلِكَ

(but He forgives except that) of sins,

﴿ لِمَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ

(to whom He wills) of His servants. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ اللهَ يَقُولُ: يَا عَبْدِي مَا عَبَدْتَنِي وَرَجَوْتَنِي، فَإِنِّي غَافِرٌ لَكَ عَلى مَا كَانَ فِيكَ، يَا عَبْدِي إِنَّكَ إِنْ لَقِيتَنِي بِقُرَابِ الْأَرْضِ خَطِيئَةً مَا لَمْ تُشْرِكْ بِي، لَقِيتُكَ بِقُرَابِهَا مَغْفِرَة »

(Allah said, "O My servant! As long as you worship and beg Me, I will forgive you, no matter your shortcomings. O My servant! If you meet Me with the earth's fill of sin, yet you do not associate any partners with Me, I will meet you with its fill of forgiveness.'') Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said, "I came to the Messenger of Allah and he said,

« مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ قَالَ: لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ ثُمَّ مَاتَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، إِلَّا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّة »
قلت: وإن زنى وإن سرق؟ قال:
« وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَق. »
قلت: وإن زنى وإن سرق؟ قال:
« وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ ثَلَاثًا، »
ثم قال في الرابعة:
« عَلَى رَغْمِ أَنْفِ أَبِي ذَر »

("No servant proclaims, There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah,' and dies on that belief, but will enter Paradise.'' I said, "Even if he committed adultery and theft'' He said, "Even if he committed adultery and theft.'' I asked again, "Even if he committed adultery and theft'' He said, "Even if he committed adultery and theft.'' The fourth time, he said, "Even if Abu Dharr's nose was put in the dust.'') Abu Dharr departed while pulling his Izar and saying, "Even if Abu Dharr's nose was put in the dust.'' Ever since that happened, Abu Dharr used to narrate the Hadith and then comment, "Even if Abu Dharr's nose was put in dust.'' The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "We used to refrain from begging (Allah) for forgiveness for those who commit major sins until we heard our Prophet reciting,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغۡفِرُ أَن يُشۡرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٲلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ

(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills;), and his saying,

« أَخَّرْتُ شَفَاعَتِي لِأَهْلِ الْكَبَائِرِ مِنْ أُمَّتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة »

(I have reserved my intercession on the Day of Resurrection for those among my Ummah who commit major sins.)'' Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمَن يُشۡرِكۡ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰٓ إِثۡمًا عَظِيمًا

(and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.) is similar to His statement,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلشِّرۡكَ لَظُلۡمٌ عَظِيمٌ۬

(Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which is the greatest sin' He said,

« أَنْ تَجْعَلَ للهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك »

(To make a rival with Allah, while He Alone created you.)''

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَہُم‌ۚ بَلِ ٱللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ يَفۡتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡكَذِبَ‌ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِۦۤ إِثۡمً۬ا مُّبِينًا أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡجِبۡتِ وَٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ أَهۡدَىٰ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ سَبِيلاً أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَعَنَہُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ وَمَن يَلۡعَنِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ ۥ نَصِيرًا

(49. Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil.) (50. Look, how they invent a lie against Allah, and enough is that as a manifest sin.) (51. Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut and say to those who disbelieve, "These people are better guided on the way, '' than the believers.) (52. They are those whom Allah has cursed, and he whom Allah curses, you will not find for him (any) helper.)

Chastising and Cursing the Jews for Claiming Purity for Themselves and Believing in Jibt and Taghut

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "This Ayah,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَہُم‌ۚ

(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves) was revealed about the Jews and Christians when they said, `We are Allah's children and His loved ones.''' Ibn Zayd also said, "This Ayah was revealed concerning their statement,

﴿ نَحۡنُ أَبۡنَـٰٓؤُاْ ٱللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّـٰٓؤُهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) and their statement,

﴿ لَن يَدۡخُلَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوۡ نَصَـٰرَىٰ‌ۗ

(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian).'' This is why Allah said,

﴿ بَلِ ٱللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ

(Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills,) meaning, the decision in this matter is with Allah Alone, because He has perfect knowledge of the true reality and secrets of all things. Allah then said,

﴿ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً

(And they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil, ) meaning, He does no injustice with anyone's compensation in any part of his reward, even if it was the weight of a Fatil. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata', Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others among the Salaf said that Fatil means, "The scalish thread in the long slit of the date-stone.'' Allah said,

﴿ ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ يَفۡتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡكَذِبَ‌ۖ

(Look, how they invent a lie against Allah,) claiming purity for themselves, their claim that they are Allah's children and His loved ones, their statement;

﴿ لَن يَدۡخُلَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوۡ نَصَـٰرَىٰ‌ۗ

(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian) their statement;

﴿ لَن تَمَسَّنَا ٱلنَّارُ إِلَّآ أَيَّامً۬ا مَّعۡدُودَةً۬‌ۚ

(The Fire shall not touch us but for a number of days) and their reliance on the righteous deeds of their forefathers. Allah has decreed that the good actions of the fathers do not help the children, when He said,

﴿ تِلۡكَ أُمَّةٌ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ‌ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتۡ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبۡتُمۡ‌ۖ

(That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn). Allah then said,

﴿ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِۦۤ إِثۡمً۬ا مُّبِينًا

(and enough is that as a manifest sin. ) meaning, these lies and fabrications of theirs are sufficient. Allah's statement,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡجِبۡتِ وَٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ

(Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut). Muhammad bin Ishaq said from Hassan bin Fa'id that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "Jibt is sorcery and Taghut is the Shaytan.'' Abu Nasr Isma`il bin Hammad Al-Jawhari, the renowned scholar, said in his book As-Sihah, "Al-Jibt means idol, soothsayer and sorcerer.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah was asked about Taghut, and he said, "They are soothsayers upon whom the devils descend.'' Mujahid said "Taghut is a devil in the shape of man, and they refer to him for judgment.'' Imam Malik said, "Taghut is every object that is worshipped instead of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.''

Disbelievers Are not Better Guided Than Believers

Allah said,

﴿ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ أَهۡدَىٰ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ سَبِيلاً

(and say to those who disbelieve, "These people are better guided on the way," than the believers.) preferring the disbelievers over Muslims, because of their ignorance, un-religious nature and disbelief in Allah's Book which is before them. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, "Huyay bin Akhtab and Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (two Jewish leaders) came to the people of Makkah, who said to them, `You (Jews) are people of the Book and knowledge, so judge us and Muhammad.' They said, `Describe yourselves and describe Muhammad.' They said, `We keep relation with kith and kin, slaughter camels (for the poor), release the indebted and provide water for the pilgrims. As for Muhammad he is without male children, he severed our relations, and the thieves who rob pilgrims (the tribe of) Ghifar follow him. So who is better, we or him' They said, `You are more righteous and better guided.' Thereafter, Allah sent down,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبً۬ا

(Have you not seen those who were given a portion).'' This story was also reported from Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf. Allah's Curse on the Jews This Ayah (4:52) contains a curse for the Jews and informs them that they have no supporter in this life or the Hereafter, because they sought the help of the idolators. They uttered this statement (in Ayah 4:51) to lure the disbelievers into supporting them, and they ultimately gathered their forces for the battle of Al-Ahzab, forcing the Prophet and his Companions to dig a defensive tunnel around Al-Madinah. But, Allah saved the Muslims from their evil,

﴿ وَرَدَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِغَيۡظِهِمۡ لَمۡ يَنَالُواْ خَيۡرً۬ا‌ۚ وَكَفَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ ٱلۡقِتَالَ‌ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ قَوِيًّا عَزِيزً۬ا

(And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty).

﴿ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ نَصِيبٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ فَإِذً۬ا لَّا يُؤۡتُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ نَقِيرًا أَمۡ يَحۡسُدُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ‌ۖ فَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَآ ءَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُم مُّلۡكًا عَظِيمً۬ا فَمِنۡہُم مَّنۡ ءَامَنَ بِهِۦ وَمِنۡہُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا

(53. Or have they a share in the dominion Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.) (54. Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His bounty Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.) (55. Of them were (some) who believed in it, and of them were (some) who rejected it; and enough is Hell for burning (them).)

The Envy and Miserly Conduct of the Jews

Allah asked the Jews if they have a share in the dominion. That is merely a statement of rebuke, since they do not have any share in the dominion. Allah then described them as misers,

﴿ فَإِذً۬ا لَّا يُؤۡتُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

(Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.) Meaning, if they had a share in the sovereignty and dominion, they would not give anyone anything, especially Muhammad , even if it was the speck on the back of a date-stone, which is the meaning of Naqir according to Ibn `Abbas and the majority of the scholars. This Ayah is similar to another of Allah's statements,

﴿ قُل لَّوۡ أَنتُمۡ تَمۡلِكُونَ خَزَآٮِٕنَ رَحۡمَةِ رَبِّىٓ إِذً۬ا لَّأَمۡسَكۡتُمۡ خَشۡيَةَ ٱلۡإِنفَاقِ‌ۚ

(Say: "If you possessed the treasure of the mercy of my Lord, then you would surely withhold it out of fear of spending it.) meaning, for fear that what you have might end, although there is no such possibility here. This only demonstrates their greedy and stingy nature. This is why Allah said,

﴿ وَكَانَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ قَتُورً۬ا

(And man is ever Qatur) meaning Bakhil (stingy). Allah then said,

﴿ أَمۡ يَحۡسُدُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ‌ۖ

(Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His Bounty) referring to their envy of the Prophet for the great prophethood that Allah entrusted him with. Their envy made them reject him, because he was an Arab and not from the Children of Israel. At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that,

﴿ أَمۡ يَحۡسُدُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ

(Or do they envy men) means, "We are the worthy people, rather than the rest of the people.'' Allah said,

﴿ فَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَآ ءَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُم مُّلۡكًا عَظِيمً۬ا

(Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.) meaning, We gave the prophethood to the tribes of the Children of Israel, who are among the offspring of Ibrahim and sent down the Books to them. These Prophets ruled the Jews with the prophetic tradition, and We made kings among them. Yet,

﴿ فَمِنۡہُم مَّنۡ ءَامَنَ بِهِۦ

(Of them were (some) who believed in it;) referring to Allah's favor and bounty (Prophets, Books, kingship),

﴿ وَمِنۡہُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ

(and of them were (some) who rejected it) by disbelieving in it, ignoring it, and hindering the people from its path, although this bounty was from and for them, the Children of Israel. They disputed with their own Prophets; so what about you, O Muhammad , especially since you are not from the Children of Israel Mujahid said,

﴿ فَمِنۡہُم مَّنۡ ءَامَنَ بِهِۦ

(Of them were (some) who believed in (him),) "Muhammad ,

﴿ وَمِنۡہُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ

(and of them were (some) who rejected (him).) '' Therefore, O Muhammad, the rejection of you because of their disbelief is even more severe and they are even further from the truth that you brought them. This is why Allah threatened them,

﴿ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا

(and enough is Hell for burning (them).), meaning, the Fire is a just punishment for them because of their disbelief, rebellion and defiance of Allah's Books and Messengers.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا سَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيہِمۡ نَارً۬ا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جُلُودًا غَيۡرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمً۬ا وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَآ أَبَدً۬ا‌ۖ لَّهُمۡ فِيہَآ أَزۡوَٲجٌ۬ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ ظِلاًّ۬ ظَلِيلاً

(56. Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. Truly, Allah is Ever Most Powerful, All-Wise.) (57. But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates), and We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening.)

The Punishment of Those Who Disbelieve in Allah's Books and Messengers

Allah describes the torment in the Fire of Jahannam for those who disbelieve in His Ayat and hinder from the path of His Messengers. Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا

(Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat ,) meaning, We will place them in the Fire which will encompass every part of their bodies. Allah then states that their punishment and torment are everlasting,

﴿ كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جُلُودًا غَيۡرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ‌ۗ

(We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment). Al-A`mash said that Ibn `Umar said, "When their skin are burned, they will be given another skin in replacement, and this skin will be as white as paper.'' This was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Al-Hasan said,

﴿ كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم

(As often as their skins are roasted through,) "Their skin will be roasted through, seventy thousand times every day.'' Husayn said; Fudayl added that Hisham said that Al-Hasan also said that,

﴿ كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم

(As often as their skins are roasted through, ) means, "Whenever the Fire has roasted them through and consumed their flesh, they will be told, `Go back as you were before,' and they will.''

The Wealth of the Righteous; Paradise and its Joy

Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَآ أَبَدً۬ا‌ۖ

(But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever.) describing the destination of the happy ones in the gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow in all of its areas, spaces and corners, wherever they desire and wish. They will reside in it for eternity, and they will not be transferred or removed from it, nor would they want to move from it. Allah said,

﴿ لَّهُمۡ فِيہَآ أَزۡوَٲجٌ۬ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ۬‌ۖ

(Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates),) free of menstruation, postnatal bleeding, filth, bad manners and shortcomings. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, "They are purified of filth and foul things.'' Similar was said by `Ata', Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, An-Nakha`i, Abu Salih, `Atiyah, and As-Suddi. Mujahid said that they are, free of urine, menstruation, spit, mucous and pregnancies.'' Allah's statement,

﴿ وَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ ظِلاًّ۬ ظَلِيلاً

(And We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening (Paradise).) means, wide, extensive, pure and elegant shade. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ لَشَجَرَةً يَسِيرُ الرَّاكِبُ فِي ظِلِّهَا مِائَةَ عَامٍ لَا يَقْطَعُهَا: شَجَرَةَ الْخُلْد »

(There is a tree in Paradise, that if a rider travels under its shade for a hundred years, he will not cross it. It is the Tree of Everlasting Life.)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦۤ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا

(58. Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

The Command to Return the Trusts to Whomever They Are Due

Allah commands that the trusts be returned to their rightful owners. Al-Hasan narrated that Samurah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَدِّ الْأَمَانَةَ إِلى مَنِ ائْتَمَنَكَ، وَلَا تَخُنْ مَنْ خَانَك »

(Return the trust to those who entrusted you, and do not betray those who betrayed you.) Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. This command refers to all things that one is expected to look after, such as Allah's rights on His servants: praying, Zakah, fasting, penalties for sins, vows and so forth. The command also includes the rights of the servants on each other, such as what they entrust each other with, including the cases that are not recorded or documented. Allah commands that all types of trusts be fulfilled. Those who do not implement this command in this life, it will be extracted from them on the Day of Resurrection. It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَتُؤَدَّنَّ الْحُقُوقُ إِلى أَهْلِهَا حَتَّى يُقْتَصَّ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَمَّاءِ مِنَ الْقَرْنَاء »

(The rights will be rendered back to those to whom they are due, and even the sheep that does not have horns will take revenge from the horned sheep.) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Jurayj said about this Ayah, "It was revealed concerning `Uthman bin Talhah from whom the Messenger of Allah took the key of the Ka`bah and entered it on the Day of the victory of Makkah. When the Prophet went out, he was reciting this Ayah,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا

(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). He then called `Uthman and gave the key back to him.'' Ibn Jarir also narrated that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "When the Messenger of Allah went out of the Ka`bah, he was reciting this Ayah,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَـٰنَـٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا

(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). May I sacrifice my father and mother for him, I never heard him recite this Ayah before that.'' It is popular that this is the reason behind revealing the Ayah (4:58). Yet, the application of the Ayah is general, and this is why Ibn `Abbas and Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said, "This Ayah is for the righteous and wicked,'' meaning it is a command that encompasses everyone.

The Order to Be Just

Allah said,

﴿ وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ‌ۚ

(and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.) commanding justice when judging between people. Muhammad bin Ka`b, Zayd bin Aslam and Shahr bin Hawshab said; "This Ayah was revealed about those in authority'', meaning those who judge between people. A Hadith states,

« إِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الْحَاكِمِ مَا لَمْ يَجُرْ، فَإِذَا جَارَ وَكَلَهُ اللهُ إِلى نَفْسِه »

(Allah is with the judge as long as he does not commit injustice, for when he does, Allah will make him reliant on himself.) A statement goes, "One day of justice equals forty years of worship.'' Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦۤ‌ۗ

(Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you!) meaning, His commands to return the trusts to their owners, to judge between people with justice, and all of His complete, perfect and great commandments and laws. Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا

(Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, He hears your statements and knows your actions.

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً

(59. O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.)